Artist
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Italian artist

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Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Italian artist

Birth Date

December 07, 1598

Death Date

November 28, 1680

Contributor

Gian Lorenzo Bernini was without a doubt the most influential Italian artist of the seventeenth century.

The dude essentially invented Baroque art and architecture, without which the gaudy McMansions of our great country would cease to exist! Who wants cutesy Colonials and elegant Craftsman when they can have ornate gilded scroll work and excessive marble? Boring losers, that’s who!

Born to moderately successful sculptor Pietro Bernini, our genius was pushed into art at a very early age. He left his hometown of Naples for Rome with his dad at the age of eight to study art and meet influential people, supposedly being called the next Michelangelo by Pope Paul V that same year.

By 15 he had begun truly setting himself apart from contemporaries with his marble work and obsession with capturing texture and emotion rather than mere form and beauty. One story states that in creating his 1613 piece The Martyrdom Of San Lorenzo the teen actually took a hot rod and pressed it against his own leg so he could watch and mold his pained expression. Sounds crazy? Maybe it was, but the depth of expression and psychology conveyed in his subjects would indicate that this passion was well worth his time. Cardinal Borghese, the Pope’s nephew, certainly thought so. He became Bernini’s patron and would soon hire the now 20 year old to fill his new villa with artwork resulting in the production of some of the most beautiful and most famous sculptures the world has ever seen. He was knighted by 23 and started designing parts of St. Peter’s Basilica at 25. So the next time a young relative tries to convince you that Justin Bieber is some kind of musical prodigy, show them a picture of Apollo and Daphne or St. Peter’s Baldachin. THAT’S what a prodigy does people! *drops mic*

Though most of his life was filled with glory, the quick-witted and amiable man certainly had some rough patches. Like when the 3-story bell tower he insisted on installing for St. Peter’s begun to crack and had to be torn down on the Pope’s orders. Oops! Or during the same period when he found out that Constanza, the wife of his assistant with whom he was having an affair, was also banging his brother Luigi. When he found out about the two’s tryst he got so angry that he tried to kill Luigi with a fire poker. That didn’t work so he sent a minion to shred Constanza’s face with a razor. Ultimately the minion was sent to jail, Constanza was arrested for adultery, and Luigi was sent into exile for his own protection. Bernini was given a fine and forced to marry the most beautiful woman in the city in order to produce more art prodigies for the glory of Italy. Seems fair.

After he got over the debacles above, his life went back to being awesome. Here is what he did in his later years:

  • Design St. Peter’s Square.
  • Become besties with most-likely-a-lesbian Queen Christina of Sweden.
  • Go to France to help design the Louvre Palace and make political connections.
  • Have his designs rejected and fail at making political connections due to constant mocking of the French at parties.
  • Have eleven children.

 

Featured Content

Here is what Wikipedia says about Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒan loˈrɛntso berˈniːni]; also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect. While a major figure in the world of architecture, he was, also and even more prominently, the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. As one scholar has commented, "What Shakespeare is to drama, Bernini may be to sculpture: the first pan-European sculptor whose name is instantaneously identifiable with a particular manner and vision, and whose influence was inordinately powerful...." In addition, he was a painter (mostly small canvases in oil) and a man of the theater: he wrote, directed and acted in plays (mostly Carnival satires), also he designed stage sets and theatrical machinery, as well as a wide variety of decorative art objects including lamps, tables, mirrors, and even coaches. As architect and city planner, he designed both secular buildings and churches and chapels, as well as massive works combining both architecture and sculpture, especially elaborate public fountains and funerary monuments and a whole series of temporary structures (in stucco and wood) for funerals and festivals.

Bernini possessed the ability to depict dramatic narratives with characters showing intense psychological states, but also to organize large-scale sculptural works that convey a magnificent grandeur. His skill in manipulating marble ensured that he would be considered a worthy successor of Michelangelo, far outshining other sculptors of his generation, including his rivals, François Duquesnoy and Alessandro Algardi. His talent extended beyond the confines of sculpture to a consideration of the setting in which it would be situated; his ability to synthesize sculpture, painting, and architecture into a coherent conceptual and visual whole has been termed by the art historian Irving Lavin the "unity of the visual arts". In addition, a deeply religious man (at least later in life), working in Counter Reformation Rome, Bernini used light both as an important theatrical and metaphorical device in his religious settings, often using hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative.

Bernini was also a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture along with his contemporaries, the architect Francesco Borromini and the painter and architect Pietro da Cortona. Early in their careers they had all worked at the same time at the Palazzo Barberini, initially under Carlo Maderno and, following his death, under Bernini. Later on, however, they were in competition for commissions, and fierce rivalries developed, particularly between Bernini and Borromini. Despite the arguably greater architectural inventiveness of Borromini and Cortona, Bernini's artistic pre-eminence, particularly during the reigns of popes Urban VIII (1623–44) and Alexander VII (1655–65), meant he was able to secure the most important commissions in the Rome of his day, the various massive embellishment projects of the newly finished St. Peter's Basilica, completed under Pope Paul V with the addition of Maderno's nave and facade and finally re-consecrated by Pope Urban VIII on 18 November 1626, after 150 years of planning and building. Bernini's design of the Piazza San Pietro in front of the Basilica is one of his most innovative and successful architectural designs. Within the basilica he is also responsible for the Baldacchino, the decoration of the four piers under the cupola, the Cathedra Petri or Chair of St. Peter in the apse, the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament in the right nave, and the decoration (floor, walls and arches) of the new nave.

During his long career, Bernini received numerous important commissions, many of which were associated with the papacy. At an early age, he came to the attention of the papal nephew, Cardinal Scipione Borghese, and in 1621, at the age of only twenty-three, he was knighted by Pope Gregory XV. Following his accession to the papacy, Urban VIII is reported to have said, "It is a great fortune for you, O Cavaliere, to see Cardinal Maffeo Barberini made pope, but our fortune is even greater to have Cavalier Bernini alive in our pontificate." Although he did not fare so well during the reign of Innocent X, under Alexander VII, he once again regained pre-eminent artistic domination and continued to be held in high regard by Clement IX.

Bernini and other artists fell from favor in later neoclassical criticism of the Baroque. It is only from the late nineteenth century that art historical scholarship, in seeking an understanding of artistic output in the cultural context in which it was produced, has come to recognise Bernini's achievements and restore his artistic reputation. The art historian Howard Hibbard concludes that, during the seventeenth century, "there were no sculptors or architects comparable to Bernini".

Check out the full Wikipedia article about Gian Lorenzo Bernini.