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When Donatello created this cutie, no free standing nude statues had been produced since Roman times. That's about a 1,000 years! Some art historians feel this statue marks the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance.

Like Donatello himself, this statue was thought to be a tad gay, or homoerotic. It's been described as 'strikingly effeminate' and 'a transvestite’s dream.' David is nude. As an untrained shepherd boy, David refuses to wear armor in his battle with Goliath. Had Donatello put him in a tunic, a queer icon might have been lost.

He confronts Goliath armed only with a slingshot. The slingshot turns out to really work well. The sword David holds in the after picture he took from Goliath. He has cut off Goliath’s head with it. The head serves as a podium/footstool for David’s victory pose.

David was Jewish, but in this statute he is uncircumcised.

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Here is what Wikipedia says about David (Donatello)

David is the title of two statues of the biblical hero David by the Italian early Renaissance sculptor Donatello. They consist of an early work in marble of a clothed figure (1408–09), and a far more famous bronze figure that is nude between its helmet and boots, and dates to the 1440s or later. Both are now in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello in Florence.

The biblical text

The story of David and Goliath comes from 1 Samuel 17. The Israelites are fighting the Philistines, whose best warrior – Goliath – repeatedly offers to meet the Israelites' best warrior in man-to-man combat to decide the whole battle. None of the trained Israelite soldiers is brave enough to fight the giant Goliath, until David – a shepherd boy who is too young to be a soldier – accepts the challenge. Saul, the Israelite leader, offers David armor and weapons, but the boy is untrained and refuses them. Instead, he goes out with his sling, and confronts the enemy. He hits Goliath in the head with a stone, knocking the giant down, and then grabs Goliath's sword and cuts off his head. The Philistines withdraw as agreed and the Israelites are saved. David's special strength comes from God, and the story illustrates the triumph of good over evil.

Check out the full Wikipedia article about David (Donatello).