Artist
Charles Le Brun
painter and art theorist

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Charles Le Brun
painter and art theorist
4.666665
Average: 4.7 (3 votes)

Birth Date

1619

Death Date

1690

mjacobson's picture

Contributor

Charles le Brun was already killin’ it with his commissions at the age of fifteen.  

At age 23 he moved to Rome for four years, before returning to Paris.  When he went back to grand ol’ Paree, he had patrons up to his ears.  Seriously. Le Brun was slaying at the painting game.

He was also kind of a dick. When he was working at the Vaux-le-Vicomte, he decided he wanted to win over Cardinal Mazarin, so he pitted French politician, Colbert (not Stephen), against Superintendent Fouquet, one of le Brun’s most important patrons.  Together, Colbert and le Brun took control of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture and the Academy of France at Rome and changed industrial arts.

In 1660, Gobelins--not "goblins," a school for the manufactured arts, mainly tapestries--was created.  Le Brun was the director there, so through Gobelins and the Academy, he had his influence dripping on every French creation.  He was the originator of the Louis XIV Style.  [Side note: being king must be awesome because things are named after you even when you had nothing to do with it.]

From 1660 to 1663, every piece of art done for the royal palaces were directed by le Brun, starting with a series about the history of Alexander the Great.  Le Brun further defined the academic style when he became the director Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. He was finally the total #1 head honcho unchallenged master of 17th-century French art.

His demise was inevitable, though.  Colbert’s successor was no fan of le Brun, and even though the king was still a big supporter, le Brun felt less powerful than he used to be.  This contributed to the illness that eventually killed him.  It's a long fall from the top.

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Here is what Wikipedia says about Charles Le Brun

Charles Le Brun (baptised 24 February 1619 – 12 February 1690) was a French painter, physiognomist, art theorist, and a director of several art schools of his time. As court painter to Louis XIV, who declared him "the greatest French artist of all time", he was a dominant figure in 17th-century French art and much influenced by Nicolas Poussin.

Biography

Early life and training

Born in Paris, Le Brun attracted the notice of Chancellor Séguier, who placed him at the age of eleven in the studio of Simon Vouet. He was also a pupil of François Perrier. At fifteen he received commissions from Cardinal Richelieu, in the execution of which he displayed an ability which obtained the generous commendations of Nicolas Poussin, in whose company Le Brun started for Rome in 1642.

In Rome he remained four years in the receipt of a pension due to the liberality of the chancellor. There he worked under Poussin, adapting the latter's theories of art. While in Rome, Le Brun studied ancient Roman sculpture, made copies after Raphael, and absorbed the influence of the local painters.

On his return to Paris in 1646, Le Brun found numerous patrons, of whom Superintendent Fouquet was the most important, for whom he painted a large portrait of Anne of Austria. Employed at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Le Brun ingratiated himself with Mazarin, then secretly pitting Colbert against Fouquet.

Le Brun was the driving force behind the establishment of the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648, and was elected as one of the original twelve elders in charge of its running. He remained a dominant figure at the academy and held the positions of chancellor in 1655 (from 1663 chancellor for life), rector from 1668 and director from 1683. When Colbert took control of the institution in 1661, Le Brun was there to assist him in his endeavour to reorganise it with the goal that the academicians would work towards bringing about a theoretical foundation for a national French art . Both also founded the Academy of France at Rome in 1666 as a base for promising young artists who would live and learn there for a certain period on the expense of the crown.

Another project Le Brun worked on was Hôtel Lambert. The ceiling in the gallery of Hercules was painted by him. Le Brun started work on the project in 1650, shortly after his return from Italy. The decoration continued intermittently over twelve years or so, as it was interrupted by the renovation of Vaux le Vicomte.

In 1660 they established the Gobelins, which at first was a great school for the manufacture, not of tapestries only, but of every class of furniture required in the royal palaces. Commanding the industrial arts through the Gobelins—of which he was director—and the whole artistic world through the Academy—in which he successively held every post—Le Brun imprinted his own character on all that was produced in France during his lifetime. He was the originator of Louis XIV Style and gave a direction to the national tendencies which endured centuries after his death. The artistic output of artists and students from the Gobelins would also exert a strong influence on art elsewhere in Europe.

Success years

The nature of his emphatic and pompous talent was in harmony with the taste of the king, who, full of admiration of the paintings by Le Brun for his triumphal entry into Paris (1660) and his decorations at the Château Vaux le Vicomte (1661), commissioned him to execute a series of subjects from the history of Alexander. The first of these, "Alexander and the Family of Darius," so delighted Louis XIV that he at once ennobled Le Brun (December, 1662), who was also created Premier Peintre du Roi (First Painter of the King) with a pension of 12,000 livres, the same amount as he had yearly received in the service of the magnificent Fouquet. The King had declared him "the greatest French artist of all time". "The Family of Darius," also known as "The Queens of Persia at the Feet of Alexander," was later cut down slightly in size by Le Brun, and retouched to disguise the alteration, presumably to make the painting similar in size to a painting by Paolo Veronese that Louis XIV had acquired.

From this date all that was done in the royal palaces was directed by Le Brun. Designs had to be approved of by the king before they could be rendered into paintings or sculptures. In 1663, he became director of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, where he laid the basis of academicism and became the all-powerful, peerless master of 17th-century French art. It was during this period that he dedicated a series of works to the history of Alexander The Great (The Battles of Alexander The Great), and he did not miss the opportunity to make a stronger connection between the magnificence of Alexander and that of the great King. While he was working on The Battles, Le Brun's style became much more personal as he moved away from the ancient masters that influenced him.

The works of the gallery of Apollo in the Louvre were interrupted in 1677 when Lebrun accompanied the king to Flanders (on his return from Lille he painted several compositions in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye), and finally—for they remained unfinished at his death—by the vast labours of Versailles, where he reserved for himself the Halls of War and Peace (Salons de la Guerreand de la Paix, 1686), the Ambassadors' Staircase, and the Great Hall of Mirrors (Galerie des Glaces, 1679–1684). Le Brun's decoration is not only a work of art, it is the definitive monument of a reign.

In 1669, Louis XIV elected to completely renovate Versailles, which was then a tiny palace, and transform it into an opulent dwelling where he would meet with his subjects and foreign diplomats. Le Brun was in charge of its decoration down to the most minute details of arrangement and presentation. In addition to classical paintings, depictions of Louis’ reign also adorned the palace walls. The whole structure and its decorations were intended to awe visitors with the splendor, wealth and taste of the king. The Escalier des Ambassadeurs was the main staircase at the entryway to Versailles from its completion in 1679 until its destruction in 1752. The king was so pleased with its appearance that he reportedly referred to it as "Monsieur Le Brun's staircase" when he showed it to an ambassador from Spain in 1679.

Later years

At the death of Colbert, François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, who succeeded as superintendent in the department of public works, showed no favour to Le Brun who was Colbert's favorite, and in spite of the king's continued support Le Brun felt a bitter change in his position. This contributed to the illness which on 22 February 1690 ended in his death in Gobelins (his private mansion, in Paris).

Check out the full Wikipedia article about Charles Le Brun.

Comments (2)

Francisco

Physiognomy is weird.

thinkstuff101

Maya Jacobson on Charles le Brun: 'He was also kind of a dick'. She does not offer up much in the way of hard evidence, but since he was an artist and a physiognomist, I am guessing she is right :)