Mount Rushmore
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The lineup is George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Theodore Roosevelt--four of America’s shiniest presidents.

But the original plan didn’t include these heads of state. In the mid-1920s, South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson had proposed a relief of Western figures, like Buffalo Bill and Chief Red Cloud, to entice more tourists to visit the state.

Around this time, Gutzon Borglum found himself with some time on his hands after another mountainous monument project of his fell through (due to him being a jerk). That’s when Robinson invited him to work on Mount Rushmore. Borglum convinced Robinson to make the piece more widely relatable by doing 60-foot busts of presidents, instead of cowboys. He started the sculpture when he was 60 and worked on it for 14 years, with the help of a crew of 30 men at a time and lots of dynamite. He died before it was finished, but his son Lincoln saw it through to sort-of-completion (it still lacks many elaborate details that Borglum had planned, like the torsos of the presidents and a grand staircase leading up from the mountain’s base).

Environmentalists of the day were scandalized by Borglum’s eagerness to dominate the natural beauty of the Black Hills. And understandably, many Lakota people in the area view a monument to four unwelcome white guys as a blatant desecration of their land. In the 1930s, Lakota Chief Henry Standing Bear commissioned an EVEN BIGGER monument to Crazy Horse, which was carved into a different cliff about 15 miles away. That’s an F U of historical proportions.

Mount Rushmore has made a few cameos on the silver screen. Movie credits include Dances with Wolves, Nebraska, National Treasure: Book of Secrets, and most famously, Alfred Hitchcock’s North by Northwest. Hitchcock had obtained a permit to shoot the film’s climactic scene at Mount Rushmore, but the folks in charge revoked it at the last minute for fear of “patent desecration,” meaning that Al might have his actors prance around irreverently on the presidential faces. So his cast and crew shot some footage in the Mount Rushmore parking lot and cafeteria, but the good stuff (Cary Grant and Eva Marie Saint scrambling down Washington’s ears) was actually filmed on a very impressive Hollywood set.




  1. “Mount Rushmore Meets Hollywood.” Black Hills Travel Blog. March 5, 2014. Accessed July 30, 2017.
  2. “Sculptor Gutzon Borglum.” National Park Service. April 19, 2017. Accessed July 30, 2017.
  3. Shaer, Matthew. “The Sordid History of Mount Rushmore.” October 2016. Accessed July 30, 2017.
  4. Snider, Eric D. “13 Monumental Facts About North by Northwest.” Mental Floss. March 29, 2016. Accessed July 30, 2017.
  5. “The Making of Mount Rushmore.” October 30, 2011. Accessed July 30, 2017.

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Here is what Wikipedia says about Mount Rushmore

Mount Rushmore National Memorial is centered on a colossal sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore (Lakota Tȟuŋkášila Šákpe, or Six Grandfathers) in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum created the sculpture's design and oversaw the project's execution from 1927 to 1941 with the help of his son, Lincoln Borglum. The sculpture features the 60-foot (18 m) heads of Presidents George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), as recommended by Borglum. The four presidents were chosen to represent the nation's birth, growth, development and preservation, respectively. The memorial park covers 1,278 acres (2.00 sq mi; 5.17 km2) and the actual mountain has an elevation of 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level.

South Dakota historian Doane Robinson is credited with conceiving the idea of carving the likenesses of noted figures into the mountains of the Black Hills of South Dakota in order to promote tourism in the region. His initial idea was to sculpt the Needles; however, Gutzon Borglum rejected the Needles because of the poor quality of the granite and strong opposition from the Lakota (Sioux), who consider the Black Hills to be sacred ground; it was originally included in the Great Sioux Reservation. The United States broke up the territory after gold was discovered in the Black Hills.

The sculptor and tribal representatives settled on Mount Rushmore, which also has the advantage of facing southeast for maximum sun exposure. Robinson wanted it to feature American West heroes, such as Lewis and Clark, their expedition guide Sacagawea, Oglala Lakota chief Red Cloud,Buffalo Bill Cody, and Oglala Lakota chief Crazy Horse. Borglum believed that the sculpture should have broader appeal and chose the four presidents.

Peter Norbeck, U.S. senator from South Dakota, sponsored the project and secured federal funding. Construction began in 1927; the presidents' faces were completed between 1934 and 1939. After Gutzon Borglum died in March 1941, his son Lincoln took over as leader of the construction project. Each president was originally to be depicted from head to waist, but lack of funding forced construction to end on October 31, 1941.

Sometimes referred to as the "Shrine of Democracy", Mount Rushmore attracts more than two million visitors annually.

Check out the full Wikipedia article about Mount Rushmore.